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Published References:
Following are references to studies of tongue and lip strength in normal subjects, and, in some cases, patients with swallowing problems or other disease states. The listing is chronological, with newer studies first. Normal values are provided by these studies directly, or, in the case of studies with patients, they have been abstracted from their control groups. Studies involving measurement of tongue-palate pressure during swallowing are indicated by an asterisk (*).
  1. Oh J. (2015). Effects of tongue strength training and detraining on tongue pressures in healthy adults. Dysphagia, 30:315-320.
  2. Jones H., Crisp K., Asrani P., Sloane R., & Kishnani, P. (2015). Quantitative assessment of lingual strength in late-onset Pompe disease. Muscle Nerve, 51:731-735.
  3. Su H., Hsiao T, Ku S., Wang, T., Lee J., Tzeng W., Huang G., & Chen C. (2015). Tongue weakness and somatosensory disturbance following oral endotracheal extubation. Dysphagia, 30:188-195.
  4. Van Lierde K., Bettens K., Luyten A., Plettinck J., Bonte K., Vermeersch H., & Roche N. (2014). Oral strength in subjects with a unilateral cleft lip and palate. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 78:1306-1310.
  5. Adams, V., Mathisen, B., Baines, S., Lazarus, C., & Callister, R. (2013). A systematic review and meta-analysis of measurements of tongue and hand strength and endurance using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI). Dyspagia, 28:350-369.
  6. Malandraki GA, Kaufman A, Hind J, Ennis S, Gangnon R, Waclawik A, Robbins J. (2012) The effects of lingual intervention in a patient with inclusion body myositis and Sjögren's syndrome: a longitudinal case study. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, 93:1469-1475.
  7. Vanderwegen, J., Guns, C., Van Nuffelen, G., Elen, R., & DeBodt, M. (2012). The Influence of Age, Sex, Bulb Position, Visual Feedback, and the Order of Testing on Maximum Anterior and Posterior Tongue Strength and Endurance in Healthy Belgian Adults. Dysphagia, 28:159-166.
  8. Neel, A.T., & Palmer, P.M. (2012). Is tongue strength an important influence on rate of articulation in diadochokinetic and reading tasks?. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 55:235-246.
  9. Clark, H.M., & Solomon, N.P. (2012). Age and sex differences in orofacial strength. Dysphagia, 27: 2-9.
  10. Perry, E.S., Potter, N.L., Rambo, K.D., & Short, R. (2011). Effects of strength training on neuromuscular facial rehabilitation. Developmental Rehabilitation, 14:164-170.
  11. Butler, S.G., Stuart, A., Leng, X., Wilhelm, E., Rees, C., Williamson,J. & Kritchevsky, S.B. (2011). The relationship of aspiration status with tongue and handgrip strength in healthy older adults. Journal of Gerontology A: Biological Science and Medical Science, 66:452-458.
  12. Yoshikawa, M., Yoshida, M., Tsuga, K., Akagawa, Y., & Groher, M.E. (2011). Comparison of three types of tongue pressure measurement devices. Dysphagia, 26:232-237.
  13. Vitorino, J. (2010). Effect of age on tongue strength and endurance scores of healthy Portuguese speakers. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12: 237-243.
  14. *Palmer, P.M., Neel, A.T., Sprouls, G., & Morrison, L. (2010). Swallow characteristics in patients with oculopharyngeal dystrophy. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53:1567-1578.
  15. *Steele, C.M., Bailey, G.L., & Molfenter, S.M. (2010). Tongue pressure modulation during swallowing: water versus nectar-thick liquids. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53: 273-283.
  16. *Steele, C.M., Bailey, G.L., Molfenter, S.M., Yeates, E.M. & Grace-Martin, K. (2010). Pressure profile similarities between tongue resistance training tasks and liquid swallows. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 47: 651-660.
  17. *Kays, S.A., Hind, J.A., Gangnon, R.E., & Robbins, J. (2010). Effects of dining on tongue endurance and swallowing-related outcomes. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53: 898-907.
  18. Potter, N.L., & Short, R. (2009). Maximal tongue strength in typically developing children and adolescents. Dysphagia, 24: 391-397.
  19. Clark, H.M., O’Brien, K., Calleja, A., & Corrie, S.N. (2009). Effects of directional exercise on lingual strength. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52: 1034-1047, 2009.
  20. *Youman, S.R., Youmans, G.L., & Stierwalt, J.A.G. (2009). Differences in tongue strength across age and gender: Is there a diminished strength reserve? Dysphagia, 24:57-65.
  21. *White, R., Cotton, S.M., Hind, J., Robbins, J., & Perry, A. (2009). A comparison of the reliability and stability of oro-lingual swallowing pressures in patients with head and neck cancer and healthy adults. Dysphagia, 24:137-144.
  22. *Steele, C.M., & Van Lieshout, P. (2009). Tongue movements during water swallowing in healthy young and older adults. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52, 1255-1267.
  23. Utanohara,Y., Hayashi, R., Yoshikawa, M., Yoshida, M., Tsuga, K., & Akagawa, Y. (2008). Standard values of maximum tongue pressure taken using newly developed disposable tongue pressure measurement device. Dysphagia, 23: 286-290.
  24. *Yeates, E.M., Molfenter, S.M., & Steele, C.M. (2008). Improvements in tongue strength and pressure-generation precision following a tongue-pressure training protocol in older individuals with dysphagia: Three case reports. Clinical Intervention in Aging, 3:735-747.
  25. Solomon, N.P., Clark, H.M., Makashay, M.J., & Newman, L.A. (2008). Assessment of orofacial strength in patients with dysarthria. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 16, 251-258.
  26. Robbins, J., Kays, S.A., Gangnon, R.E., Hind, J.A., Hewitt, A.L., Gentry, L.R., & Taylor, A.J. (2007). The effects of lingual exercise in stroke patients with dysphagia. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88: 150-158.
  27. Stierwalt, J.A.G., & Youmans, S.R. (2007). Tongue measures in individuals with normal and impaired swallowing. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16: 148-156.
  28. *Youmans, S.R., & Stierwalt, J.AG. (2006). Measures of tongue function related to normal swallowing. Dysphagia 21: 102-111.
  29. Neel, A.T., Palmer, P.M., Sprouls, G., & Morrison, L. (2006). Tongue strength and speech intelligibility in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 14: 273-277.
  30. Robbins, J.M, Gangnon, R.E., Theis, S.M., Kays, S.A., Hewitt, A.L., & Hind, J.A. (2005). The effects of lingual exercise on swallowing in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 53: 1483-1489.
  31. Solomon, N.P., & Munson, B. (2004). The effect of jaw position on measures of tongue strength and endurance Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47: 584-594.
  32. Lazarus, C., Logemann, J.A., Huang, C-F., & Rademaker, A.W. (2003). Effects of two types of tongue strengthening exercises in young normals. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 55: 199-205.
  33. Clark, H.M., Henson, P.A., Barber, W.D., Stierwalt, J.A, & Sherrill, M. (2003). Relationships among subjective and objective measures of tongue strength and oral phase swallowing impairments. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12:40-50.
  34. *Hind, J.A., Nicosia, M.A., Roecker, E.B., Carnes, M.L., & Robbins, J. (2001). Comparison of effortful and noneffortful swallows in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82:1661- 1665.
  35. *Nicosia, M.A., Hind, J.A., Roecker, E.B., Carnes, M., Doyle, J., Dengel, G.A., & Robbins, J. (2000). Age effects on the temporal evolution of isometric and swallowing pressure. Journal of Gerontology: MEDICAL SCIENCES, 55A: M634-M640.
  36. Solomon, N.P.,Robin, R.A., & Luschei, E.S. (2000). Strength, endurance, and stability of the tongue and hand in Parkinson Disease. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43: 256-267.
  37. Lazarus, C.L., Logemann, J.A., Pauloski, B.R., Rademaker, A.W., Larson, C.R., Mittal, B.B., & Pierce, M. (2000). Swallowing and tongue function following treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43:1011-1023.
  38. Crow, H.C., & Ship, J.A. (1996). Tongue strength and endurance in different aged individuals, Journal of Gerontology: MEDICAL SCIENCES. 51A: M247-M250.
  39. Theodoros, D.G., Murdoch, B.E., & Stokes, P. (1995). A physiological analysis of articulatory dysfunction in dysarthric speakers following severe closed-head injury. Brain Injury, 9:237-254.
  40. Solomon, N.P. Lorell, D.M. Robin, D.A.; Rodnitzky, R.L., & Luschei, E.S. (1995). Tongue strength and endurance in mild to moderate Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Medical Speech Pathology, 3:15-26.
  41. *Robbins, J., Levine, R., Wood, J., Roecker, E.B., & Luschei, E. (1995). Age effects on lingual pressure generation as a risk factor for dysphagia. Journal of Gerontology: MEDICAL SCIENCES. 50: M257-M262, 1995.
  42. Murdoch, B.E., Attard, M.D., Ozanne, A.E., & Stokes, P.D. (1995). Impaired tongue strength and endurance in developmental verbal dypraxia: a physiological analysis. European Journal of Disorders of Communication, 30:51-64.
  43. *Perlman, A.L., Guthmiller Schultz, J, & VanDaele, D.J. (1993). Effects of age, gender, bolus volume, and bolus viscosity of oropharyngeal pressure during swallowing. Journal of Applied Physiology, 75:33-37.
  44. Robin, D.A., Goel, A., Somodi, L.B., and Luschei, E.S. (1992). Tongue strength and endurance: relation to highly skilled movements. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35:1239-1245, 1992.
  45. Dworkin, J.F. (1980). Tongue force in normals and in dysarthric patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 23:828-837.
  46. Kydd, WL. (1957). Maximum forces exerted on the dentition by the perioral and lingual musculature. Journal of the American Dental Association, 55:646-651.
Additional references related to tongue strength and exercise:
  1. Palmer, P.M., Jaffe, D.M., McCulloch, T.M., Finnegan, E.M., Van Daele, D.J., & Luschei, E.S. (2008). Quantitative contributions of the muscles of the tongue, floor-of-mouth, jaw and velum to tongue-to-palate pressure generation. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51:828-835.
  2. *Hori, K., Ono, T., & Nokubi, T. (2005). Coordination of tongue pressure and jaw movement in mastication. Journal of Dental Research, 85: 187-191.
  3. *Hind, J.A., Nicosia, M.A., Gangnon, R., & Robbins, J. (2005). The effects of intraoral pressure sensors on normal young and old swallowing patterns. Dysphagia 20: 249-253.
  4. *Hori, K., Ono, T., Hisayuki, I., Nobuki, T., & Kumakura, I. (2005). Tongue pressure against the hard palate during swallowing in post-stroke patients. Gerodontology, 22: 227-233.